Gothenburg Study 95+


Wave 1: 1996-2007
Wave 2: 1998-2007
Wave 3: 2000-2010
Wave 4: 2001-2011
Wave 5: 2002-2012
Wave 6: 2003-2013
Wave 7: 2004-2014
Wave 8: 2005-2018

Sample size


Sample population


Sample residence


Survey mode


Longitudinal or cross-section study


Data sources

Cognitive measures
Physical measures
Biosamples (Blood, Urine, CSF)
Administrative databases (Health Databases, Vital statistics databases, Socioeconomic databases)
Other: Medical records from in- and out-patient care, CT scans

The psychiatric examinations were performed by psychiatrists and include ratings of psychiatric symptoms and signs with Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale, Mini-D, tests of mental functioning (e.g. memory), Mini Mental State Examination, other signs common in dementia, personality inventories (Five Factor Model, EPI) and questions about previous mental disorders, sexuality, sleep, and suicidal behavior.

Somatic examinations include assessment of medical conditions (e.g. hypertension, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke, cardiac failure, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, pulmonary diseases, fractures, thyroid diseases, head trauma, cancer), the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, ECG, lung function, measures of atherosclerosis, body composition (dexa), grip strengths and walking capacity. Questions are asked about urinary function, falls, dizziness, alcohol and tobacco use, family history of psychiatric and somatic disorders, and use of health services. Blood samples are taken and include e.g. hemoglobin, HbA1c, cholesterol (HDL, LDL), and homocysteine. Blood, serum and plasma are frozen for future analyses.

Psychological examinations assess memory and intelligence using SRB-1, SRB-2, SRB-3, Thurstone Picture Memory, Ten Word Memory List, Clock Test, Prose Recall, and Digit Span. Functional ability data is collected on basic abilities in ADL, and iADL (Katz, Lawton).

Social factors data are collected on socioeconomic status, marital status, living conditions, social network, education, hobbies, cultural activities and life events.

Close informant interview comprises IQCODE, questions on changes in behavior and intellectual function, psychiatric symptoms, ADL/iADL, family history, medical history and onset and course of dementia. Genetic epidemiology DNA is extracted from whole blood using a standard procedure. The DNA samples are genotyped using the large scale (approx 500 000 genetic markers) Infinium Neuro Consortium Array (NeuroChip) from Illumina, including a GWAS-part together with a custom-made part focusing on neurodegenerative disorders. Additional single SNPs of specific interest have been/will be analyzed with allele-specific amplification methods for genotyping, such as KASPar.

Dementia, depression, psychotic disorders, sleep disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders (social phobia, specific phobia, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder) and post-traumatic stress disorder are diagnosed according to DSM-III-R, DSM-IV or DSM-5. Somatic disorders are classified according to established criteria, using information from examinations, close informants, and hospital register data.

Main topics

Social factors, lifestyle factors, medication use, functional ability, psychological and psychiatric data, somatic data, and data from proxy interviews. Blood samples, dietary examinations, ophthalmological examinations, and audiological examinations. Brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid.


To explore interactions between genetic, biological, and psychosocial risk factors and the influence of secular changes in the development of dementia (e.g. Alzheimer Disease and vascular dementia) and other mental disorders (e.g. depression, anxiety, psychosis) in a population 95 years old followed longitudinally.

Scientific domain

Psychiatry, Epidemiology, Psychology, Medicine, Social Science

Age studies subcategories
Age Study (95+)

University of Gothenburg

Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology


Prof. Ingmar Skoog

Professor, PI of The Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Studies
Centre for Ageing and Health (AgeCap) Neuropsychiatric epidemiology research unit (EPINEP)
University of Gothenburg


Steen B, Djurfeldt H. The gerontological and geriatric population studies in Gothenburg, Sweden. Z Gerontol. 1993 May-Jun;26(3):163-9.

Bengtsson, C., Hällström, T., & Tibblin, G. (1973). Chapter X Social Factors, Stress Experience, and personality traits in women with ischaemic heart disease, compared to a population sample of women.  Acta Medica Scandinavica, 193(S549), 82-92.

Skoog, I., Nilsson, L., Palmertz, B., Andreasson, L. A., & Svanborg, A. (1993). A population-based study of dementia in 85-year-olds. New England Journal of Medicine, 328(3), 153-158.

Rydberg Sterner T., Ahlner F., et Al. The Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Study 2014-16: design, methods and study population. European Journal of Epidemiology. 2019 Feb;34(2):191-209